Answered By: ic
Last Updated: Sep 24, 2018     Views: 74

If you can’t find an example in the referencing guide to match your source type, you may need to create a 'FRANKENREFERENCE'…

                That is, combining a couple, or even multiple reference formats.

                This means mixing and matching to get the best reference which fully and accurately describes the source.

                Common reasons for this include:

                                If the source has multiple authors

                                If the source is physical or electronic

                                If the source is missing elements such as an author.

Before you start it is important to scan your source and identify the basic elements. For example:



Publisher and date of publication.

          URL or name and URL of the database if retrieved via the library's online resources.


The examples below demonstrate how to create a 'Frankinreference' by combining a number of examples from the APA (PDF) guide. (You can do the same for other referencing styles listed on the referencing and citation page)

 ‘Frankenreference’ for an online dictionary with no author and no date.



‘Frankenreference’ for a chapter in an edited e-book.



'Frankinreference' for journal article with multiple authors.  (APA style guide indicates rules for formatting sources with multiple authors in the examples for books. These rules can be applied when referencing any source type, such as an electronic journal article).


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